Employer and other group health plan sponsors, fiduciaries and administrators and individual and group health insurers should confirm their plan documents and practices comply with new additional guidance on when the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) preventive care mandates set forth in Public Health Services (PHS) Act section 2713, the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) and the Internal Revenue Code (the Code) require non-grandfathered group health plans to cover colonoscopies and Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved contraceptives as preventive services without co-pays or deductibles in light of yet more guidance on the preventive care rule jointly published April 20, 2016 by the Departments of Labor (DOL), Health and Human Services (HHS), and the Treasury (collectively, the “Agencies”) in FAQs about Affordable Care Act Implementation (Part 31) (FAQ 31).
Employer and other plan sponsors, group health plan fiduciaries and insurers alike should make compliance with the ACA preventive care mandates a priority because violations of the preventive coverage rule not only exposes group health plans and insurers to potential liability for wrongful denial of benefits, breach of fiduciary duty for ERISA covered arrangements and other similar insurance claims for insurers under state law, noncompliance with these mandates generally triggers liability for an employer to self-assess, self-report on Internal Revenue Service Form 8928 an excise penalty of $100 per participant per day for each day of uncorrected violation. With most employers sponsoring plans facing a deadline to file Form 8928’s for any uncorrected disclosures soon, now is the time to review and correct any violations of the preventive care guidelines over the past year and preventing future deadlines.
ACA Preventive Care Mandate Overview
The preventive care mandates of ACA generally require that health insurance or plan coverage offered in the individual or group market cover the following items or services without imposing any cost-sharing requirements:
- Evidence-based items or services that have in effect a rating of “A” or “B” in the current recommendations of the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) with respect to the individual involved, except for the recommendations of the USPSTF regarding breast cancer screening, mammography, and prevention issued in or around November 2009, which are not considered in effect for this purpose;
- Immunizations for routine use in children, adolescents, and adults that have in effect a recommendation from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) with respect to the individual involved;
- With respect to infants, children, and adolescents, evidence-informed preventive care and screenings provided for in comprehensive guidelines supported by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA); and
- For women, evidence-informed preventive care and screening provided for in comprehensive guidelines supported by HRSA, to the extent not included in certain recommendations of the USPSTF subject to special rules with respect to coverage of contraceptive services for group health plans and group health insurance coverage provided in connection with group health plans established or maintained by religious employers.
See 1.26 CFR 54.9815-2713, 29 CFR 2590.715-2713, 45 CFR 147.130.
If a recommendation or guideline does not specify the frequency, method, treatment, or setting for the provision of a recommended preventive service, then the plan or issuer may use reasonable medical management techniques to determine any such coverage limitations. See 26 CFR 54.9815-2713(a)(4), 29 CFR 2590.715-2713(a)(4), 45 CFR 147.130(a)(4).
FAQ 31 On Coverage of Colonoscopies Pursuant to USPSTF Recommendations
Concerning colonoscopies, FAQ 31 states that because the Agencies view preparation for a preventive screening colonoscopy an integral part of the procedure, bowel preparation medications, when medically appropriate and prescribed by a health care provider, are an integral part of the preventive screening colonoscopy that group health plans and health insurers must cover without cost sharing, subject to reasonable medical management).
Coverage of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved Contraceptives
FAQ 31 also supplements an already extensive list of Agency guidance concerning when group health plans and health insurers must cover contraceptives as preventive care without cost sharing under ACA stemming from the HRSA Guidelines’ inclusion of a recommendation of all FDA-approved contraceptive methods, sterilization procedures, and patient education and counseling for all women with reproductive capacity, as prescribed by a health care provider.
FAQs about Affordable Care Act Implementation (Part XII), Q14 (FAQ 12) previously released in 2013 states the HRSA Guidelines ensure women’s access to the full range of FDA-approved contraceptive methods including, but not limited to, barrier methods, hormonal methods, and implanted devices, as well as patient education and counseling, as prescribed by a health care provider. FAQ 12 also states group health plans and insurers may use reasonable medical management techniques to control costs and promote efficient delivery of care, such as covering a generic drug without cost sharing and imposing cost sharing for equivalent branded drugs provided that the plan or insurer accommodates any individual for whom a particular drug (generic or brand name) would be medically inappropriate, as determined by the individual’s health care provider, by having a mechanism for waiving the otherwise applicable cost sharing for the brand or non-preferred brand version.
In FAQs about Affordable Care Act Implementation (Part XXVI), Q2 and Q3 (FAQ26) subsequently published on May 15, 2016, the Agencies clarified that group health plans and health insurers:
- Must cover without cost sharing at least one form of contraception in each of the methods (currently 18) identified for women by the FDA;
- To the extent plans and issuers use reasonable medical management techniques within a specified method of contraception, must have an easily accessible, transparent, and sufficiently expedient exceptions process that provides for making a determination on the claim according to a timeframe and in a manner that takes into account the nature of the claim (e.g., pre-service or post-service) and ensures the medical exigencies involved for a claim involving urgent care is not unduly burdensome on the individual or provider (or other individual acting as a patient’s authorized representative, including a provider) to ensure coverage without cost sharing of any service or FDA-approved item within the specified method of contraception;
- Must defer to the determination of the attending provider and cover a service or item without cost sharing a particular service or FDA-approved item that the individual’s attending provider recommends based on a determination of medical necessity with respect to that individual, where medical necessity could include considerations such as severity of side effects, differences in permanence and reversibility of contraceptives, and ability to adhere to the appropriate use of the item or service, as determined by the attending provider; and
- In the case of health insurers required to provide essential health benefits (EHB) under the ACA, must have an exceptions process that meets the standards in 45 CFR 156.122(c).
FAQ 31 supplements this previous Agency guidance by confirming that group health plans and health insurers may develop a standard exception form with instructions that an attending provider may use to prescribe a particular service or FDA-approved item based on a determination of medical necessity with respect to the individual involved and suggests the Medicare Part D Coverage Determination Request Form as an appropriate model for the development of such forms.
Act To Verify Compliance, Leverage Opportunities
FAQ 31 and the other guidance presents a two-edged sword for health insurers and group health plans and their sponsors. On one hand, failing to design and administer their health benefit programs to comply with these and other rules and interpretations about the preventive care and other federal health plan mandates imposed by the ACA or other laws can trigger significant liability for insurers as well as group health plans and theirsponsoring employers. On the other hand, group health plans and insurers that carefully design and administer their arrangements to comply with the guidance also can take advantage of opportunities to manage utilization and costs using the narrow windows of opportunity offered within the guidance.
In either case, careful, well-documented efforts to verify compliance in response to the evolving guidance is important to prevent unanticipated violations and position group health plans, their sponsoring employers and fiduciaries and insurers to mitigate potential exposures in the event of a violation of existing or subsequently published guidance.
About The Author
A practicing attorney and Managing Shareholder of Cynthia Marcotte Stamer, P.C., Ms. Stamer’s more than 28 years’ of leading edge work as an practicing attorney, author, lecturer and industry and policy thought leader have resulted in her recognition as a “Top” attorney in employee benefits, labor and employment and health care law.
A Fellow in the American College of Employee Benefit Counsel, the American Bar Foundation and the Texas Bar Foundation, Cynthia Marcotte Stamer is a noted Texas-based management lawyer and consultant, author, lecturer and policy advocate, recognized as among the “Top Rated Labor & Employment Lawyers in Texas” by LexisNexis® Martindale-Hubbell® and as among the “Best Lawyers In Dallas” for her work in the field of “Tax: Erisa & Employee Benefits” and “Health Care” by D Magazine.
Ms. Stamer’s legal and management consulting work throughout her career has focused on helping organizations and their management use the law and process to manage people, process, compliance, operations and risk. Highly valued for her rare ability to find pragmatic client-centric solutions by combining her detailed legal and operational knowledge and experience with her talent for creative problem-solving, Ms. Stamer helps public and private, domestic and international businesses, governments, and other organizations and their leaders manage their employees, vendors and suppliers, and other workforce members, customers and other’ performance, compliance, compensation and benefits, operations, risks and liabilities, as well as to prevent, stabilize and cleanup workforce and other legal and operational crises large and small that arise in the course of operations.
Board Certified in Labor & Employment Law by the Texas Board of Legal Specialization, Ms. Stamer helps management manage. Ms. Stamer works with businesses and their management, employee benefit plans, governments and other organizations deal with all aspects of human resources and workforce management operations and compliance. She supports her clients both on a real time, “on demand” basis and with longer term basis to deal with daily performance management and operations, emerging crises, strategic planning, process improvement and change management, investigations, defending litigation, audits, investigations or other enforcement challenges, government affairs and public policy. Well-known for her extensive work with health care, insurance and other highly regulated entities on corporate compliance, internal controls and risk management, her clients range from highly regulated entities like employers, contractors and their employee benefit plans, their sponsors, management, administrators, insurers, fiduciaries and advisors, technology and data service providers, health care, managed care and insurance, financial services, government contractors and government entities, as well as retail, manufacturing, construction, consulting and a host of other domestic and international businesses of all types and sizes. Common engagements include internal and external workforce hiring, management, training, performance management, compliance and administration, discipline and termination, and other aspects of workforce management including employment and outsourced services contracting and enforcement, sentencing guidelines and other compliance plan, policy and program development, administration, and defense, performance management, wage and hour and other compensation and benefits, reengineering and other change management, internal controls, compliance and risk management, communications and training, worker classification, tax and payroll, investigations, crisis preparedness and response, government relations, safety, government contracting and audits, litigation and other enforcement, and other concerns.
A Fellow in the American College of Employee Benefit Counsel, Ms. Stamer uses her deep and highly specialized knowledge and experience to help employers and other employee benefit plan sponsors; health, pension and other employee benefit plans, their fiduciaries, administrators and service providers, insurers, and others design legally compliant, effective compensation, health and other welfare benefit and insurance, severance, pension and deferred compensation, private exchanges, cafeteria plan and other employee benefit, fringe benefit, salary and hourly compensation, bonus and other incentive compensation and related programs, products and arrangements. She is particularly recognized for her leading edge work, thought leadership and knowledgeable advice and representation on the design, documentation, administration, regulation and defense of a diverse range of self-insured and insured health and welfare benefit plans including private exchange and other health benefit choices, health care reimbursement and other “defined contribution” limited benefit, 24-hour and other occupational and non-occupational injury and accident, ex-patriate and medical tourism, onsite medical, wellness and other medical plans and insurance benefit programs as well as a diverse range of other qualified and nonqualified retirement and deferred compensation, severance and other employee benefits and compensation, insurance and savings plans, programs, products, services and activities. As a key element of this work, Ms. Stamer works closely with employer and other plan sponsors, insurance and financial services companies, plan fiduciaries, administrators, and vendors and others to design, administer and defend effective legally defensible employee benefits and compensation practices, programs, products and technology. She also continuously helps employers, insurers, administrative and other service providers, their officers, directors and others to manage fiduciary and other risks of sponsorship or involvement with these and other benefit and compensation arrangements and to defend and mitigate liability and other risks from benefit and liability claims including fiduciary, benefit and other claims, audits, and litigation brought by the Labor Department, IRS, HHS, participants and beneficiaries, service providers, and others. She also assists debtors, creditors, bankruptcy trustees and others assess, manage and resolve labor and employment, employee benefits and insurance, payroll and other compensation related concerns arising from reductions in force or other terminations, mergers, acquisitions, bankruptcies and other business transactions including extensive experience with multiple, high-profile large scale bankruptcies resulting in ERISA, tax, corporate and securities and other litigation or enforcement actions. In the course of this work, Ms. Stamer has accumulated an impressive resume of experience advising and representing clients on HIPAA and other privacy and data security concerns. The scribe for the American Bar Association (ABA) Joint Committee on Employee Benefits annual agency meeting with the Department of Health & Human Services Office of Civil Rights for several years, Ms. Stamer has worked extensively with health plans, health care providers, health care clearinghouses, their business associates, employer and other sponsors, banks and other financial institutions, and others on risk management and compliance with HIPAA and other information privacy and data security rules, investigating and responding to known or suspected breaches, defending investigations or other actions by plaintiffs, OCR and other federal or state agencies, reporting known or suspected violations, business associate and other contracting, commenting or obtaining other clarification of guidance, training and enforcement, and a host of other related concerns. Her clients include public and private health plans, health insurers, health care providers, banking, technology and other vendors, and others. Beyond advising these and other clients on privacy and data security compliance, risk management, investigations and data breach response and remediation, Ms. Stamer also advises and represents clients on OCR and other HHS, Department of Labor, IRS, FTC, DOD and other health care industry investigation, enforcement and other compliance, public policy, regulatory, staffing, and other operations and risk management concerns. She also is the author of numerous highly acclaimed publications, workshops and tools for HIPAA or other compliance including training programs on Privacy & The Pandemic for the Association of State & Territorial Health Plans, as well as HIPAA, FACTA, PCI, medical confidentiality, insurance confidentiality and other privacy and data security compliance and risk management for Los Angeles County Health Department, ISSA, HIMMS, the ABA, SHRM, schools, medical societies, government and private health care and health plan organizations, their business associates, trade associations and others.
Ms. Stamer also is deeply involved in helping to influence the Affordable Care Act and other health care, pension, social security, workforce, insurance and other policies critical to the workforce, benefits, and compensation practices and other key aspects of a broad range of businesses and their operations. She both helps her clients respond to and resolve emerging regulations and laws, government investigations and enforcement actions and helps them shape the rules through dealings with Congress and other legislatures, regulators and government officials domestically and internationally. A former lead consultant to the Government of Bolivia on its Social Security reform law and most recognized for her leadership on U.S. health and pension, wage and hour, tax, education and immigration policy reform, Ms. Stamer works with U.S. and foreign businesses, governments, trade associations, and others on workforce, social security and severance, health care, immigration, privacy and data security, tax, ethics and other laws and regulations. Founder and Executive Director of the Coalition for Responsible Healthcare Policy and its PROJECT COPE: the Coalition on Patient Empowerment and a Fellow in the American Bar Foundation and State Bar of Texas, Ms. Stamer annually leads the Joint Committee on Employee Benefits (JCEB) HHS Office of Civil Rights agency meeting and other JCEB agency meetings. She also works as a policy advisor and advocate to many business, professional and civic organizations.
Author of the thousands of publications and workshops these and other employment, employee benefits, health care, insurance, workforce and other management matters, Ms. Stamer also is a highly sought out speaker and industry thought leader known for empowering audiences and readers. Ms. Stamer’s insights on employee benefits, insurance, health care and workforce matters in Atlantic Information Services, The Bureau of National Affairs (BNA), InsuranceThoughtLeaders.com, Benefits Magazine, Employee Benefit News, Texas CEO Magazine, HealthLeaders, Modern Healthcare, Business Insurance, Employee Benefits News, World At Work, Benefits Magazine, the Wall Street Journal, the Dallas Morning News, the Dallas Business Journal, the Houston Business Journal, and many other publications. She also has served as an Editorial Advisory Board Member for human resources, employee benefit and other management focused publications of BNA, HR.com, Employee Benefit News, InsuranceThoughtLeadership.com and many other prominent publications. Ms. Stamer also regularly serves on the faculty and planning committees for symposia of LexisNexis, the American Bar Association, ALIABA, the Society of Employee Benefits Administrators, the American Law Institute, ISSA, HIMMs, and many other prominent educational and training organizations and conducts training and speaks on these and other management, compliance and public policy concerns.
Beyond these involvements, Ms. Stamer also is active in the leadership of a broad range of other professional and civic organizations. For instance, Ms. Stamer presently serves on an American Bar Association (ABA) Joint Committee on Employee Benefits Council representative; Vice President of the North Texas Healthcare Compliance Professionals Association; Immediate Past Chair of the ABA RPTE Employee Benefits & Other Compensation Committee, its current Welfare Benefit Plans Committee Co-Chair, on its Substantive Groups & Committee and its incoming Defined Contribution Plan Committee Chair and Practice Management Vice Chair; Past Chair of the ABA Health Law Section Managed Care & Insurance Interest Group and a current member of its Healthcare Coordinating Council; current Vice Chair of the ABA TIPS Employee Benefit Committee; the former Coordinator and a Vice-Chair of the Gulf Coast TEGE Council TE Division; on the Advisory Boards of InsuranceThoughtLeadership.com, HR.com, Employee Benefit News, and many other publications. She also previously served as a founding Board Member and President of the Alliance for Healthcare Excellence, as a Board Member and Board Compliance Committee Chair for the National Kidney Foundation of North Texas; the Board President of the early childhood development intervention agency, The Richardson Development Center for Children; Chair of the Dallas Bar Association Employee Benefits & Executive Compensation Committee; a member of the Board of Directors of the Southwest Benefits Association. For additional information about Ms. Stamer, see here or contact Ms. Stamer directly by email here or by telephone at (469) 767-8872.
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